Direct Rollovers from Retirement Plans to Roth IRAs
Joint Committee on Taxation Technical Explanation of the PPA Subtitle C, Explanation 4
4. Allow direct rollovers from retirement plans to Roth IRAs (sec. 408A(e) of the Code)
IRAs in general
There are two general types of individual retirement arrangements ("IRAs"): traditional IRAs, to which both deductible and nondeductible contributions may be made, and Roth IRAs.
An individual may make deductible contributions to an IRA up to the lesser of a dollar limit (generally $4,000 for 2006)173 or the individual's compensation if neither the individual nor the individual's spouse is an active participant in an employer-sponsored retirement plan.174 If the individual (or the individual's spouse) is an active participant in an employer-sponsored retirement plan, the deduction limit is phased out for taxpayers with adjusted gross income ("AGI") over certain levels for the taxable year. A different, higher, income phaseout applies in the case of an individual who is not an active participant in an employer sponsored plan but whose spouse is.
To the extent an individual cannot or does not make deductible contributions to an IRA or contributions to a Roth IRA, the individual may make nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA.
Amounts held in a traditional IRA are includible in income when withdrawn (except to the extent the withdrawal is a return of nondeductible contributions). Includible amounts withdrawn prior to attainment of age 59½ are subject to an additional 10-percent early withdrawal tax, unless the withdrawal is due to death or disability, is made in the form of certain periodic payments, or is used for certain specified purposes.
Individuals with AGI below certain levels may make nondeductible contributions to a Roth IRA. The maximum annual contributions that can be made to all of an individuals IRAs (both traditional and Roth) cannot exceed the maximum deductible IRA contribution limit. The maximum annual contribution that can be made to a Roth IRA is phased out for taxpayers with income above certain levels.
Amounts held in a Roth IRA that are withdrawn as a qualified distribution are not includible in income, or subject to the additional 10-percent tax on early withdrawals. A qualified distribution is a distribution that (1) is made after the five-taxable year period beginning with the first taxable year for which the individual made a contribution to a Roth IRA, and (2) which is made after attainment of age 59½, on account of death or disability, or is made for first-time homebuyer expenses of up to $10,000.
Distributions from a Roth IRA that are not qualified distributions are includible in income to the extent attributable to earnings, and subject to the 10-percent early withdrawal tax (unless an exception applies). The same exceptions to the early withdrawal tax that apply to IRAs apply to Roth IRAs.
If certain requirements are satisfied, a participant in a tax-qualified retirement plan, a taxsheltered annuity (sec. 403(b)), or a governmental section 457 plan may roll over distributions from the plan or annuity into a traditional IRA. Distributions from such plans may not be rolled over into a Roth IRA.
Taxpayers with modified AGI of $100,000 or less generally may roll over amounts in a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA. The amount rolled over is includible in income as if a withdrawal had been made, except that the 10-percent early withdrawal tax does not apply. Married taxpayers who file separate returns cannot roll over amounts in a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA. Amounts that have been distributed from a tax-qualified retirement plan, a taxsheltered annuity, or a governmental section 457 plan may be rolled over into a traditional IRA, and then rolled over from the traditional IRA into a Roth IRA.
Explanation of Provision
The provision allows distributions from tax-qualified retirement plans, tax-sheltered annuities, and governmental 457 plans to be rolled over directly from such plan into a Roth IRA, subject to the present law rules that apply to rollovers from a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA. For example, a rollover from a tax-qualified retirement plan into a Roth IRA is includible in gross income (except to the extent it represents a return of after-tax contributions), and the 10- percent early distribution tax does not apply. Similarly, an individual with AGI of $100,000 or more could not roll over amounts from a tax-qualified retirement plan directly into a Roth IRA.
The provision is effective for distributions made after December 31, 2007.
173 The dollar limit is scheduled to increase until it is $5,000 in 2008-2010. Individuals age 50 and older may make additional, catch-up contributions.
174 In the case of a married couple, deductible IRA contributions of up to the dollar limit can be made for each spouse (including, for example, a homemaker who does not work outside the home), if the combined compensation of both spouses is at least equal to the contributed amount.